A Hamiltonian cycle, also known as a Hamilton cycle or Hamiltonian circuit, is a cycle in a graph that visits every vertex exactly once, except for the starting vertex.

The KMP algorithm improves the efficiency of string searching by utilizing the information gathered from previous character comparisons. It avoids unnecessary character comparisons by exploiting the knowledge of the pattern itself.

Kruskal’s algorithm is one of the popular algorithms used to find an MST in a connected weighted graph. This algorithm is efficient, easy to understand, and guarantees the construction of a minimum-weight spanning tree.

This algorithm uses Relaxation, to find the shortest path between the source vertex and other vertices. It gradually expands the search space until the shortest path to the destination node is found.

Dijkstra’s algorithm works based on the principle of Greedy-approach, gradually expanding the search space until the shortest path to the destination node is found.

Nim’s game is played with a set of heaps, each containing a certain number of objects or stones. Two players take turns removing objects from the heaps

“Order Statistics” is a concept discussed in the book “Introduction to Algorithms”. It pertains to finding the ith order statistics of a set of n elements in linear time. ith order statistics is the ith smallest element in a set of n elements.