The KMP algorithm improves the efficiency of string searching by utilizing the information gathered from previous character comparisons. It avoids unnecessary character comparisons by exploiting the knowledge of the pattern itself.

Kruskal’s algorithm is one of the popular algorithms used to find an MST in a connected weighted graph. This algorithm is efficient, easy to understand, and guarantees the construction of a minimum-weight spanning tree.

This algorithm uses Relaxation, to find the shortest path between the source vertex and other vertices. It gradually expands the search space until the shortest path to the destination node is found.

Dijkstra’s algorithm works based on the principle of Greedy-approach, gradually expanding the search space until the shortest path to the destination node is found.

“Order Statistics” is a concept discussed in the book “Introduction to Algorithms”. It pertains to finding the ith order statistics of a set of n elements in linear time. ith order statistics is the ith smallest element in a set of n elements.

This data structure is useful in situations where we need to group items together based on certain criteria, and then perform operations on these groups.