## Efficiently Merging Large Sorted Files

The solution involves using an external Merge sort algorithm for handling data that cannot fit into memory. We’ll use a two-pointer technique.

## Understanding Linearity of Expectation

Linearity of expectation is a powerful concept in probability theory that simplifies the calculation of expected values in probabilistic experiments.

## Estimating Percolation in a Matrix Network

Dynamic connectivity algorithms provide an efficient way to model and analyze percolation in a grid of sites.

## Finding Permutations that Form the Sum | Coin Change Permutation

Find the number of permutations to form the target sum using the elements of the given array, with repetition allowed.

## Solving the Fractional Knapsack Problem

While the 0/1 Knapsack problem restricts you to take an item entirely, Fractional Knapsack problem allows you to take fractions of an item.

## Assembly-Line Scheduling

Assembly line scheduling is a classic problem in production optimization, often encountered in manufacturing industries.

## Rat in the maze | Minimum number of steps

Given a maze with obstacles, find the minimum number of steps the rat needs to take to reach the destination.